The Museum's library is an important supplement to the activities of the institution and its research. The main assets include monographs, conference proceedings, national and international journals, and guides.

The library also includes specific and specialized assets, attained through purchases and donations (Leone Fasani Foundation, the former IIPU Foundation, Danilo Torre Foundation, and the Alda Vigliardi Foundation).

The library, open to the public, also houses the University of Florence's library collection of prehistoric archaeology and thus constitutes an important reference point for prehistoric archaeology studies.